Toward Objective Evaluation of Working Memory in Visualizations: A Case Study Using Pupillometry and a Dual-Task Paradigm


Given the widespread use of visualizations to communicate hazard risks, forecast visualizations must be as effective to interpret as possible. However, despite incorporating best practices, visualizations can influence viewer judgments in ways that the designers did not anticipate. Visualization designers should understand the full implications of visualization techniques and seek to develop visualizations that account for the complexities in decision-making. The current study explores the influence of visualizations of uncertainty by examining a case in which ensemble hurricane forecast visualizations produce unintended interpretations. We show that people estimate more damage to a location that is overlapped by a track in an ensemble hurricane forecast visualization compared to a location that does not coincide with a track. We find that this effect can be partially reduced by manipulating the number of hurricane paths displayed, suggesting the importance of visual features of a display on decision making. Providing instructions about the information conveyed in the ensemble display also reduced the effect, but importantly, did not eliminate it. These findings illustrate the powerful influence of marks and their encodings on decision-making with visualizations.